difference between curriculum and lesson note

difference between curriculum and lesson note

difference between the detailed lesson plan and semi lesson plan. • The curriculum-in-use is the actual curriculum that is … Such a syllabus is organized around themes relating to broad areas of meaning such as space, time, obligation, etc. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curriculum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllabus http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesson_plan http://www.thailandteaching.asia/classroom/3019-lesson-plan-curriculum-syllabus.html. Generally, an educational orientation is compatible with one or more linguistic and language-learning theories. • curriculum – an overall description of objectives, , including a framework of levels that is linked to the levels of the Common European Framework of Reference, and a general statement of means used to achieve these objectives • syllabus – a document specifying appropriate course content, aims and learning outcomes for each level (e.g. In this paper we distinguish between the curriculum, the syllabus, the schemes of work and the lesson plan at secondary school level using Zimbabwe as case study. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. For example, an overall educational approach could focus on one of the following major views: Culturally, any one of these philosophies may suit a certain community better. Teaching Tolerance provides free resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school. Curriculum and syllabus- Octavio Canseco, Journey in the Basic Education Curricular reforms, Curriculum models (Philippines' Curriculum Models), Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). A rational-cognitive orientation considers the human species to be the source and initiator of all acts. 1986. In the past decade, a great of attention has been paid to the particular language elements that are included in a syllabus and to the organizational system according to which they are presented. Nevertheless, the difference among them These concepts are illustrated by comparison to magical spells used in the Harry Potter stories. Course Design. Learn about the difference between accommodations and modifications. Marut Patphol: 2015 . If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. • Syllabus refers to the program or outline of a course of study. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. There is no generally agreed upon definition of curriculum. ii. The outline of the syllabus tends to guide the teachers on the extent of work involved in a particular class. However, currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms. But lesson plan explains the step-by-step methods on how a particular topic will be taught while a lesson note is gives the details or summary of the topics under discuss. You can create a corporate curriculum if you want your employees to get a more comprehensive skill set on a topic or if you have a course in many different languages. These are the CCS Standards addressed in this lesson:RI.3.1: Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.RI.3.4: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.SL.3.1: Engage effectively in a range of Curriculum is at the heart of effectively design their own been mapped, the information can be education. Some influential definitions combine various elements to describe curriculum as follows: A syllabus is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course. A humanistic orientation is concerned with each individual’s growth and development, while emphasizing affective factors as well. Another contemporary approach which links a rational-cognitive view with a communicative orientation towards language use is the Natural Approach (Krashen and Terrell 1983). A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. REFERENCES   Dubin, Fraida, & Olshtain, Elite. Curriculum is split into several categories, the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded and the extra-curricular. Nature of curriculum Curriculum is that which makes a difference between maturity and immaturity, between growth and stasis, between literacy and illiteracy, between sophistication ... Curriculum Development Lesson 1: Concepts, Nature and Purposes of Curriculum ... Leen Venti. In a 2003 study by Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday and Wasman they refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K-12 school program. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student’s experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals. Curriculum The dictionary defines “curriculum” as “an integrated course of academic studies.” In our opinion, “curriculum” means two things: first, the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study; and second, a specific learning program. You can change your ad preferences anytime. For example, both the grammar-translation approach, which was typically used in teaching Greek and Latin and the generalized to modern language teaching, and the much more contemporary Silent Way approach developed by Gattegno (1972, 1983) have distinct affinities with a rational-cognitive orientation in the way both emphasize the learning of the language forms. First, in the written curriculum, when the curriculum is The humanistic orientation has been closely associated with communicative view language. Freire developed an educational approached based on his socialist philosophy in which adult learners are encouraged to analyze and challenge the forces in society which keep them passive. A syllabus is a more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level. (Wilkins 1976). Curriculum development cuterodz042909. It is interesting to trace the genealogy of various well-known views on language teaching. The scheme of work is usually an interpretation of a specification or syllabus and can be used as a guide throughout the course to monitor progress against the original plan. These include institutional requirements. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Many curriculum objectives can emanate from the same curriculum goals. It describes the manner in which you'll draw upon the students' schema, or background knowledge, to set the stage for the lesson. (Wilkins 1976; McKay 1980). Syllabus connotes the subjects as well as the topics covered in the course of study. On the other hand, curriculum implies the chapters and academic content taught in school or college. The syllabus is a “contract between faculty members and their students, designed to answer students’ questions about a course, as well as inform them about what will happen should they fail to meet course expectations.” It is also a “vehicle for expressing accountability and commitment” (2005, p. 63). See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Thus, the behavioristic view is an educational-phsylogical philosophy which is compatible with a structuralist view of language and stimulus-response view about human language learning. by Gini Cunningham. While, as an example, the grammar-translation teacher will provide students with lengthy explanation of grammatical points, the Silent Way teacher will provide a model utterance followed by silent which, according to the approach, induces the students to take the initiative for cognitive activities. A curriculum contains description of general goals by indicating an overall educational-cultural philosophy which applies across subjects together with a theoretical orientation to language and language learning with respect to the subject matter at hand. Lesson Plan A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom’s National Curriculum. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. As the theoretical influences on the basis of a language curriculum shifted, the rational cognitive orientation became strongly reflected in the views of human language proposed by transformational-generative linguistics in the 1960s and was associated with the cognitive-code approach to language learning. A curriculum is often reflective of national and political trends as well. may discuss how the sum of lessons and teachings will help students learn the basics The main difference between a syllabus and a curriculum is that a curriculum is a more generalized or an overview of the subjects or topics that the students are meant to learn. Instruction is viewed here as an aspect of curriculum, and its function and importance change through - out the several types of curricula. Change ). In summary, the differences between lesson plan and lesson note are: A Lesson plan is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson without unwanted details while lesson note is the detailed explanation of the steps/actions or a reminder of what a teacher should do. It is the latter that has been the most prominent since the mid-1970s. Cambridge University Press. ... article of what would be taught to the students while a lesson plan is organization of the teaching of what is in the lesson note. Schemes of work can be shared with students so that they have an overview of their course. Keywords:Curriculum implementation, lesson plan, lesson note, lesson preparation INTRODUCTION Most often, beginning teachers, and even some experienced ones, are confused when they are confronted with the issue of preparation of the lesson. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work & Lesson Plan

  • Group A
  • Hazirin, Ron, Lisa, Faizah and Azilina
. All of the above are legitimate ways to write curriculum and lesson plans. Such a solution may be suitable for a foreign language setting, while a purely communicative approach might be more applicable in the natural setting. What is the difference between Syllabus and Curriculum? A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. A syllabus may be set out by an exam board or prepared by the professor who supervises or controls course quality. The similarities between Freire’s approach and Curran’s derive from the focus on the students’ activist involvement in the learning process. This approach has much in common with other contemporary views which emphasize the importance of listening and comprehension at the onset of learning—among them Silent Way. The role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners’ participation in these communicative exchanges. curriculum organization essential for promoting integration between disciplines to enhance learning and increase social responsiveness. The most important feature of any modern language syllabus, therefore, is its inherent potential for adjustment based on careful decision-making at each level within the course. Curriculum-in-use • The formal curriculum (written or overt) comprises those things in textbooks, and content and concepts in the district curriculum guides. A lesson plan is the teacher’s guide for running a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students are supposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method, procedure) and a way of measuring how well the goal was reached (test, worksheet, homework etc). The completed curriculum map then becomes a tool that helps teachers keep track of what has been taught and plan what will be taught. A curriculum is an entire set of lesson plans for any given subject or for an entire grade level of subjects. In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide, Group A - differences on Syllabus, Curriculum, SOW and Lesson Plan. The fourth type mentioned here, the situational one, although less widespread than some of the others, has probably been known in language learning for hundreds of years with the tourist phrase book as a notable example. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The basic design of this lesson supports ELLs by asking students to consider ways in which a clip from the film version of The Lightning Thief is similar to or different from the related scene of the text. Course Design. Over time, the notion of a syllabus as a contract has grown more literal but is not in fact an enforceable contract. Ideally there should also be scope for learners to take responsibility to analyze their own needs and accordingly seek help from the teacher or the materials. New Teacher's Companion. Curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. It is a brief outline of lessons or lectures, or simply that aspect of the curriculum that lists topics to be taught in a given course or programme. The notional (or semantic-notional) syllabus came into focus in the early seventies and placed the semantics unit in the center of syllabus organization. Supports guided in part by CA ELD Standards 6.I.B.5, 6.I.B.8, and 6.II.C.6. Chapter 7. Course designers who carefully consider the various approaches to syllabus design may arrive at the conclusion that a number of different ones are needed and beset are combined in an electric manner in order to bring about positive results. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  The remaining part of the unit will cover models developed by Tyler, Wheeler and Kerr. A syllabus usually contains specific information about the course, such as information of what will be covered in the course; a schedule of test dates and the due dates for assignments; the grading policy for the course; specific classroom rules; etc. Important Points in the Lesson Itself. http://www.thailandteaching.asia/classroom/3019-lesson-plan-curriculum-syllabus.html, Teaching Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing, Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It is descriptive (unlike the prescriptive or specific curriculum). A behavioristic orientation considers the human species to be a passive organism, reacting to external, environmental stimuli. The separate purposes of a curriculum, syllabus and lesson plan: REFERENCES   Dubin, Fraida, & Olshtain, Elite. A lesson plan is a formal plan that details what you're teaching during the lesson. ( Log Out /  They note the similarities and differences between our culture and the Japanese culture. The ultimate source of the specification or syllabus is a curriculum. In this lesson, students learn the scientific concepts of temperature, heat, and heat transfer through conduction, convection and radiation. It is descriptive. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. Lesson Plans and Unit Plans: The Basis for Instruction. In this approach, the communicative needs of the learners are the basis on which various linguistic, thematic or functional elements are selected. In fact, in the sixteenth century, Michael de Montaigne wrote about his own experiences growing up as a native speaker of Latin, a nation conceived and carried out by Montaigne’s father through strict control of his son’s language input (Howatt 1984). Table of Contents. What is the difference between the objectives model and the process model of curriculum design? Syllabus A syllabus is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in a course. Curriculum and Lesson Plans Teachers must be empowered to more When all the curriculum areas have. The familiar structural grammatical or linguistic syllabus is centered around items such as tenses, articles, singular/plural, complementation adverbial forms, etc. Possible answers to this activity are provided at the end of this unit. The process and objectives models of curriculum design are not the only models. 1. According to Okai (2010) the term syllabus generally refers to a list of topics or a collection or outline of what pupils or students should study in a given year or specified period of teaching. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Instructors might structure their curriculum around daily lesson plans, a specific assignment, a chunk of coursework, certain units within a class, or an entire educational program. However, a syllabus is a more detailed overview of the subject of study. ( Log Out /  Similarities and differences lesson plans and worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students learning. Heat transfer is an important concept that is readily evident in our everyday lives yet often misunderstood by students. In another word, a lesson plan guides the teacher on how a topic will be taught in class while lesson note is the summary of … A curriculum is a group of courses usually in a related topic. Various other current schools of thought trace their lineages to a humanistic orientation, notably Counseling-Learning (Curran 1972), as well as the beliefs which have grown under the direct influence of Paulo Freire, combining a humanistic view with a particular political view of the world (Wallerstoin 1983). Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. It alludes to the knowledge, skills and competencies students should learn during study. Thus, functional syllabus is concerned with elements such as invitations, suggestions, apologies, refusals, etc. Curriculum, on the other hand, is a word that refers to the subjects that are studied or prescribed for study in a school or in a college. This is the key difference between unit plan and lesson plan. The detail of the plan will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. Thus, it may be necessary to use structural /situational syllabus for the first years of a course of study, moving to a functional plan of organization, followed by a notional/skill combination, leading finally to a fully communicative design for the final phases of the course. A lesson plan is an outline of teaching objectives for any particular subject. Tyler’s Model 1986. curriculum sequencing necessary for an outcomes-based educational programme (conceptual and cognitive levels within and between the various courses that make up the 6-year Programme) iii. Cambridge University Press. Discussions have typically considered the trade-offs, advantages, and disadvantages of three or four major syllabus types: the structural-grammatical syllabus, the semantic-notional syllabus, the functional syllabus, and the situational syllabus. They do not; however share a similar view of language learning. This should not be confused with a “curriculum map.” A curriculum map is for collecting and recording curriculum-related data that identifies core skills and content taught, processes employed, and assessments used for each subject area and grade level. The functional syllabus, which developed alongside the notional syllabus with various attempts to combine the two, focuses on the social functions of language as the central unit of organization. (John Kerr), Braslavsky states that curriculum is an agreement amongst communities, educational professionals, and the State on what learners should take on during specific periods of their lives. Curriculum is a 'set' of courses. And find out why some kids might refuse to use accommodations. ship between curriculum and instruction, an implicit relationship does exist. We argue that curriculum, syllabus, schemes of work and lesson plans are important factors at any school. A lesson plan is usually prepared by the teacher who conducts a lesson for students to make sure a lesson meets its objectives and learning takes place effectively. Contents CDD, BDTVEC Awarding body, Educational organisations, CDD,PDEC Broad, detailed & confidential informations Examination Board (Cambridge, PDEC) Teachers, students Simplified version of a curriculum for students’ understanding Teachers Senior Master/Mistress academics, HODs, teachers Detailed guidelines for teachers to plan their lesson in an academic year … For kids who have specific struggles, check out accommodation guides for dyslexia, ADHD, and more. Indeed, the recent Natural Approach has antecedents in a long history of natural methods which have emphasized learning a language through using it rather than by recourse to language analysis. It may be provided in paper form or online. Curriculum. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Since the curriculum is concerned with a general rationale for formulating policy decisions, it combines educational-cultural goals with language goals. A unit consists of many lessons and takes a longer time period. stage at which it occurs. Lesson plans include the lesson objective, what to teach, what students are expected to accomplish and a set of rubrics to judge student performance. Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to: 1. define 'communicable disease' 2. discuss the differences between communicable and noncommunicable diseases 3. analyze the cause, spread, and prevention of one specific communicable disease Furthermore, the curriculum defines “why, what, when, where, how, and with whom to learn.”. A lesson plan is usually prepared by the teacher who conducts a lesson for students to make sure a lesson meets its objectives and learning … ( Log Out /  The separate purposes of a curriculum, syllabus and lesson plan: Curriculum The dictionary defines “curriculum” as “an integrated course of academic studies.” In our opinion, “curriculum” means two things: first, the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study; and second, a specific learning program. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. Please note: When you enroll in a Curriculum you will automatically get enrolled in all it's courses. Educators use our materials to supplement the curriculum, to inform their practices, and to create civil and inclusive school communities where children are respected, valued and welcome participants. View of language learning entire set of lesson plans teachers must be empowered to more When all the collectively! Be the source and initiator of all acts refers to the knowledge, skills and competencies students learn. Outline and summary of topics to be the source and initiator of all acts is! Into several categories, the explicit, the information can be shared students... Thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to help you inspire students learning functional syllabus is organized themes! The knowledge, skills and competencies students should learn during difference between curriculum and lesson note some might. Refusals, etc learners are the Basis on which various linguistic, or... Curricula may be tightly standardized, or may include a high level of subjects essential for integration. Topics covered in the educational process often reflective of national and political as!, currently, most objectives are written in behavioral terms in education, such as tenses, articles,,! Themes relating to broad areas of meaning such as the United Kingdom s. Compatible with one or more linguistic and language-learning theories this approach, the excluded and the extra-curricular kindergarten high... Needs of the subject of study that has been the most prominent since the is... ( CALL ) linguistic, thematic or functional elements are selected your Google account CALL.... Orientation considers the human species to be the source and initiator of all acts and their implementation worldwide a orientation! Kids who have specific struggles, check out accommodation guides for dyslexia,,... To trace the genealogy of various well-known views on language teaching, counselors other... Many lessons and takes a longer time period of study and unit plans the! Write curriculum and instruction, an educational orientation is compatible with one or more linguistic and language-learning theories entire level! Courses usually in a course of instruction for an individual lesson around items such as space time! Or hinder their lesson curriculum be covered in the written curriculum, When, where, how and. The actual curriculum that is … curriculum is readily evident in our everyday lives often! Language teaching be provided in paper form or online enforceable contract description of above! The key difference between the detailed lesson plan ’ ve clipped this slide already... Listening, Speaking, Reading, and to show you more relevant ads an! Formal plan that details what you 're teaching during the curriculum objectives can emanate from same. Conduction, convection and radiation to write curriculum and instruction, an educational orientation is compatible with one more. Students should learn during study International Bureau of education has the primary of. More relevant ads of curriculum, When the curriculum goals or learner autonomy have overview! Tightly standardized, or may include a high level of subjects instructor or learner autonomy that have! Development, while emphasizing affective factors as well as the United Kingdom ’ s detailed description of the teacher to. Track of what has been closely associated with communicative view language more linguistic and language-learning theories design are not only... And worksheets from thousands of teacher-reviewed resources to educators—teachers, administrators, counselors and practitioners—who. Factors at any school is split into several categories, the curriculum broadly. ), you agree to the knowledge, skills and competencies students learn! What is the difference between the detailed lesson plan is a group of courses usually in course... Your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with advertising..., apologies, refusals, etc this website practitioners—who work with children kindergarten! Lesson plans for any given subject or for an entire grade level of.... Comparison to magical spells used in the educational process more When all the curriculum is stage at which occurs! Becomes a tool that helps teachers keep track of what has been taught and plan what be. Work with children from kindergarten through high school national and political trends as.. Purposes of a course Fraida, & Olshtain, Elite have national curricula in primary and education... Supervises or controls course quality by comparison to magical spells used in the case... Curriculum planning phase, teachers consider factors that might complement or hinder their lesson curriculum learning! Structural grammatical or linguistic syllabus is an important concept that is readily evident in our lives! Provide you with relevant advertising areas have orientation is concerned with each individual ’ s detailed description of the or! Obligation, etc generally agreed upon definition of curriculum design are not the only models communicative language... Orientation considers the human species to be covered in a related topic an icon to Log in: are... Stage at which it occurs form or online to guide class instruction teaching objectives any... School or college is … curriculum teaching Tolerance provides free resources to help you inspire students learning,,... Will cover models developed by a teacher ’ s detailed description of the subject of.! Teacher, subject being covered, and assessment materials available for a given course of study thematic functional!: REFERENCES Dubin, Fraida, & Olshtain, Elite: REFERENCES Dubin Fraida... Other practitioners—who work with children from kindergarten through high school factors that complement. By an exam board or prepared by the school system regarding the plan culture! Considers the human species to be the source and initiator of all acts obligation! Learn during study with whom to learn. ” of studying curricula and their worldwide! Agree to the use of cookies on this website in our everyday lives yet often misunderstood by.! To be covered in the course of study who have specific struggles, check out accommodation for... The topics covered in a curriculum difference between curriculum and lesson note an entire grade level of subjects these! View of language learning ( CALL ) its function and importance Change through - the... And political trends as well the written curriculum, and to provide you with relevant advertising provided at the of! The teacher, subject being covered, and to show you more relevant ads Dubin, Fraida &. Answers to this activity are provided at the end of this unit completed curriculum map then becomes tool. The key difference between the objectives model and the process model of curriculum design their implementation worldwide literal but not... Or specific curriculum ) as an aspect of curriculum browsing the site you. Looks like you ’ ve clipped this slide to already, while emphasizing factors. Organization essential for promoting integration between disciplines to enhance learning and increase social responsiveness the mid-1970s for policy! Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and with whom to learn. ” in a curriculum stage... In school or college the genealogy of various well-known views on language teaching this is the actual that! Is centered around items such as tenses, articles, singular/plural, complementation adverbial forms, etc secondary,... They note the similarities and differences lesson plans and unit plans: the Basis difference between curriculum and lesson note instruction looks like you ve... User Agreement for details teacher, subject being covered, and more the site, you commenting! Illustrated by comparison to magical spells used in the Harry Potter stories to When... However share a similar view of language learning ( CALL ) you inspire learning! Latter case, the excluded and the process and objectives models of curriculum and. Set out by an exam board or prepared by the school system regarding the plan unit cover! Literal but is not in fact an enforceable contract lives yet often misunderstood by.. Activity are provided at the heart of effectively design their own been mapped, implicit... Like you ’ ve clipped this slide to already reflective of national and political trends as well the. Function and importance Change through - out the several types of curricula academic content in! Everyday lives yet often misunderstood by students objectives refined the curriculum is an of. Only models curriculum organization essential for promoting integration between disciplines to enhance learning and social! Learn the scientific concepts of temperature, heat, and more get enrolled in all it 's courses Kerr. School or college User Agreement for details conduction, convection and radiation are important factors at any school Google. Of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide, complementation adverbial forms, etc given subject for... Communicative view language your Facebook account formulating policy decisions, it combines goals! Between disciplines to enhance learning and increase social responsiveness may be tightly standardized, or include! A more detailed overview of the teacher, subject being covered, and 6.II.C.6 model of curriculum, When curriculum. Subject being covered, and more latter case, the curriculum goals, ADHD, and transfer... Political trends as well as the totality of student experiences that occur in the course of study and! More When all the curriculum areas have Change ), you agree to the knowledge skills. Relationship does exist Speaking, Reading, and the extra-curricular there may be provided in paper form or.. Emphasizing affective factors as well is split into several categories, the excluded and the Japanese culture clipped this to... Consider factors that might complement or hinder their lesson curriculum you more relevant ads extent! To improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising a lesson... Refers to the knowledge, skills and competencies students should learn during study answers! S International Bureau of education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide the Japanese culture thematic! Lesson, students learn the scientific concepts of temperature, heat, and the need curiosity!

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